**Option 1 - **Add or subtract points on a result

On a final result, per student points can be subtracted or added. Subtracting results is equal to adding negative points. This can be useful when, for example, a student can get negative points for grammatic errors or formatting errors.

To be able to add (negative) points, a setting should be enabled. This is possible in the window **About**, and then the tab **Grading**. Here the setting **Use adjustment of total points** is found, as can be seen in the image below. Select this setting. Now, during reviewing, an adjustment of the total points can be made.

During reviewing, when such mistakes are found on which (negative) points should be added, this can be done by the bar **Total points adjustment **in the bottom right corner. This option is always available during reviewing once this option (see above) is enabled.

Once total points adjustments are added, this number will remain in next exercises that are reviewed. This means that you should not put in -0.2 points each time, but you should add -0.2 to the number of points already there. So the second time, -0.4 should be filled in.

**Option 2 - **Changing the marking formula

- Go to the tab
**Results**in the assignment window and click**Mark calculation**, on top of the list of students. - The pop-up that appears contains several options to change the mark calculation.
- Change the
**formula**: Standard, the formula is [1 + 9 ***points**/**total**], where**points**is the number of points obtained by a student and**total**is the total amount of points a student can obtain. Options that are available for this formula:- Math operators: + , - , * , / , ^
- Logic functions: IF, AND, OR
- Comparison operators: <, >, <=, >=, !=, =
- Numeric functions: MIN, MAX, ROUND, ROUNDUP, ROUNDDOWN

**Explanation**: The following formula gives an answer of 1 if no points are gathered and increases as a polynomial.

**Code**: 1 + 0.026984127 *

**points**+ 0.002050265 *

**points**^ 2

**Explanation**: If total number of points is lower than 45, use*(**points**/ 9) + 1*as marking formula. If total number of points is equal or larger than 45, use*(4 ***points**/ 45)+2*as marking formula.

**Code**: IF(

**points**< 45, (

**points**/ 9) + 1, (4 *

**points**/ 45)+2)

**Explanation**: The maximum of 0 and**points**minus 28 are compared and subsequently multiplied by 4 and divided by the**total**minus 28. Next, two things are added to this number: the minimum of 28 and**points**multiplied by 5 and divided by 28 and one (so a student will not get a mark lower than 1).

**Code**: MAX(0,

**points**- 28) * 4 / (

**total**- 28) + MIN(28,

**points**) * 5 / 28 + 1

**guess correction**can be added. This guess correction is based on a formula by Cohen-Schotanus, but rewritten by W. Bender (2003). This guess correction is only applicable to multiple choice questions, as well for questions with one correct answer as questions with multiple correct answers.

- Corrected score = [(
*s-n*g*) / (*n-n*g*)] x*n*

*s*= score for multiple choice questions of the student*n*= maximum score for multiple choice questions*g*= (number of correct answers for multiple choice questions) / (total number of multiple choice answer possibilities)

*g*is equal to 1/2 (50%). When more than one multiple choice question is in one assignment, the number of correct answers of all multiple choice questions are added as well as the total number of answer possibilities of all multiple choice questions. The same is done for the score

*s*as well as the maximum score

*n*of all multiple choice questions.

5. The minimum and maximum mark are needed if a bonus or formula is set where a student, in theory, can get higher or lower than the boundaries.

6. The rounding of the marks can be determined.

8. Click

**Save**and the marks of the students will be updated automatically.

**Option 3 - **Use a table to calculate the marks

Instead of using a formula or equation to calculate the marks, a table can be inserted by which marks will be determined. This can be done by choosing **Table** in the drop-down menu below **Mark calculation**. A window as seen below will show.

The first option in this window is to use mark bounds. This option allows setting a **minimum mark** of 1.0 and a **maximum mark** of 10.0.

Secondly, the menu gives the option to choose a **rounding** type. There are four possibilities to round off the marks:

- Two decimals
- One decimal
- Nearest half
- Whole numbers

It is also possible to set a pass threshold.

The checkbox **Use letter grades **can be found in this window. This option allows setting a letter for a certain mark. This means that a mark of 8.0 can be linked to an A, a 6.0 can be linked to a B, et cetera. Checking this box creates a new column in the table that should be filled in with the letters.

In this window, a table can be imported using the button **IMPORT TABLE**. This table should be an Excel- or .CSV-file and should have two columns, one with points and one with the marks. If the option **Use letter grades** is checked, the file should contain three columns.

The table can also be typed manually in this window. Type one row at a time and choose **ADD ROW** to insert a new row. The dustbin icon can be clicked to delete a row.

An example can be seen in the image below.

**NOTE!** When a student gets a number of points in between of two data points from the table, so for example 22,0 points, the grade will be of the data point in the nearest vicinity. 22,0 points will be a mark of 4,0 for example, while 28,0 points will be a mark of 6,0. When the student has 25,0 points, the student will get a mark of 4,0, so a number of points exactly in the middle is rounded of downwards.

**Option 4 - **Change the amount of points for a question or criteria

- Go to
**Criteria**in the menu of an assignment. - Click
**Edit**in the bar of the question of which the points need to be altered. - Change the number of points of the question.
- If points are used as review method, change the number of points for the criteria so they match up with the total points for the question.

**Note**: If criteria are added, the question should be reviewed again if it already was reviewed! A pop-up will appear when this is the case.

5. Click

**Save**and the marks of the students will be updated automatically.

**Option 5 - **Make a question a bonus question

**Analytics**and by using

**Criteria.**Both methods will result in reaching the same goal.

**Using Criteria**

- Go to
**Criteria**in the menu of an assignment. - Click
**Edit**in the bar of the question which needs to be turned into a bonus question. - Click
**Options**and click**Bonus**in the drop-down menu that appears. - Click
**Save**and the marks of the students will be updated automatically.

**Using Analytics**

- Go to
**Analytics**in the menu of an assignment. - Click the tab
**Exercise analysis**in the top bar. - Go to the question which needs to be turned into a bonus question and click the drop-down button, which says
**Normal**when the question is a normal question. - Select
**Bonus**and the change will be saved automatically. - The marks of the students will be updated automatically.

**Option 6 - **Disable questions or criteria

**Exercise analytics**. If criteria need to be deleted, use the tab

**Criteria**.

**Delete criteria using Criteria**

- Go to
**Criteria**in the menu of an assignment. - Click
**Edit**in the bar of the question which criteria need to be deleted. - Click
**Delete**of the criteria which needs to be deleted. - In the pop-up that appears, click
**Yes**if you are sure to delete the criteria. - Change the total amount of points of the question of change the points the other criteria are worth if necessary, so the total points for the subquestion match the total amount of points the criteria are worth.
- Click
**Save**and the marks of the students will be updated automatically.

**Disable questions using Analytics**

- Go to
**Analytics**in the menu of an assignment. - Click the tab
**Exercise a****nalysis**in the top bar. - Go to the question which needs to be disabled and click the drop-down button, which says
**Contributing**when the question is a normal contributing question. - Select
**Disabled**and the change will be saved automatically. - The marks of the students will be updated automatically.

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